Saturday, June 11, 2011


This is an excellent ingredient in nearly all vegetable salads. Cover a champagne-bottle with raw cotton or heavy, coarse flannel; fasten it with thread; set the bottle in a soup-plate, and pour warm water over it. Soak a handful of borage seeds in warm water for fifteen minutes; drain, and work them into the flannel around the bottle, as evenly as possible. Place the bottle and soup-plate in a warm, dark place until the seeds sprout; then bring it to the light. Keep water in the plate constantly. When the shoots are a few inches long, trim them off, as wanted, and add them to any salad with a plain dressing.

To Candy Spanish Flowers

Take the Blossoms of divers sorts of flowers, and make a syrup of water and sugar, and boil it very thick, then put in your Blossoms, and stir them in their boiling, till it turn to sugar again, then stir them with the back of a spoon, till the Sugar fall from it; so may you keep them for Sallets all the year.

To Candy or clear Rockcandy flowers

Take spices, and boil them in a syrup of Sugar, then put in the flowers, boil them till they be stiff, when you spread them on a Paper, lay them on round Wires in an earthen pan, then take as much hard Sugar as will fill your pan, and as much water as will melt the sugar, that is half a pint to every pound; then beat a dozen spoonfuls of fair water, and the white of an Egg in a bason, with a birchen rod till it come to a Froth, when your sugar is melted and boiled, put the froth of the Egg in the hot syrup, and as it riseth, drop in a little cold water; so let it boil a little while, then scum it, then boil it to a Candy height, that is, when you may draw it in small threads between your finger and your thumb: then pour forth all your syrup that will run from it in your pan, then set it a drying one hour or two, which done pick up the wiers, and take off the flowers, and lay them on papers, and so dry them.

To Candy Pippins, Pears, Apricocks or Plums

Take of these fruits being pared, and strew sugar upon them, as you do flower upon frying fish; then lay them on a board in a Pewter dish, so put them into an Oven as hot as for Manchet; as the liquor comes from them, pour forth, turn them, and strew more Sugar on them, and sprinkle Rose-water on them, thus turning and sugaring of them three or four times, till they be almost dry, then lay them on a Lettice Wire, or on the bottom of a sieve in a warm Oven, after the bread is drawn out, till they be full dry: so you may keep them all the year.

To Make Sugar of Roses

Take the deepest coloured red Roses, pick them, cut off the white bottoms, and dry your red leaves in an Oven, till they be as dry as possible, then beat them to powder and searse them, then take half a pound of Sugar beaten fine, put it into your pan with as much fair water as will wet it; then set it in a chaffing-dish of coals, and let it boil till it be sugar again, then put as much powder of Roses as will make it look very red stir them well together, and when it is almost cold, put it into pailes, and when it is throughly cold, take them off, and put them in boxes.

To Candy Rosemary-flowers in the Sun

Take Gum-Dragon, and steep it in Rose-water, then take the Rosemary flowers, good coloured, and well pickt, and wet them in the water that your Gum dragon is steeped in, then take them out, and lay them upon a paper, and strew fine Sugar over them; this do in the hot sun, turning them, and strewing Sugar on them, till they are candied, and so keep them for your use.

The Vertues

It is good against the Falling-sickness, and giddiness in the head, it cleanseth the Reins and Bladder.

Touching Candies, as followeth.

Conserve of Peony after the Italian way

In the Spring take of the Flowers fresh half a pound, Sugar one pound, beat them together in a good stone Mortar, then put them in a glass, and set them in the sun for three months, stirring them daily with a wooden Spathula.

The Vertues

It is good against the coldness, moistness of the Brain, and Stomach, and it strengthneth the Vital spirits.

Conserve of Marjoram

The Conserve is prepared as Betony, it keepeth a year.

The Vertues

The Brain, the Stomach, Liver, Spleen, and Womb it maketh warm, and is good in the Suffocation of the Womb, hardness of the spleen and for the Apoplexy.

Conserve of flowers of Lavender

Take the flowers being new, so many as you please, and beat them with three times their weight of white Sugar, after the same manner as Rosemary flowers; they will keep one year.

The Vertues

It is good in all cold hurts of the brain, it refresheth the Stomach, it openeth obstructions and takes away superfluous and hurtfull humours from the stomach.

Conserve of Sage

Take new flowers of Sage one pound, sugar one pound; so beat them together very small in a Marble Mortar, put them in a vessel well glassed and steeped, set them in the Sun, stir them daily; it will last one year.

The Vertues

It helpeth the cold pains of the head, purgeth the stomach and womb: it helpeth stoniness of the Reins, and furthereth Conception.

Conserve of Betony after the Italian way

Betony new and tender one pound, the best sugar three pound, beat them very small in a stone Mortar, let the sugar be boiled with two pound of Betony-water to the consistance of a syrup, at length mix them together by little and little over a small fire, and make a Conserve, which keep in a glass.

The Vertues

It comforteth the heart, the stomach, the brain, and all the nervous part of the Body.

Conserve of Rosemary flowers after the Italian manner

Take new Rosemary Flowers one pound, of white sugar one pound; so beat them together in a Marble Mortar with a wooden Pestle, keep it in a gallipot, or vessel of earth well glassed, or in one of hard stone. It may be preserved for one year or two.

Conserve of Borage Flowers after the Italian manner

ake fresh Borage flowers cleansed well from their heads four ounces, fine sugar twelve ounces, beat them well together in a stone Mortar, and keep them in a vessel well placed.

The vertues are the same with Bugloss flowers.

The Vertues

The Stomach, Heart, and Bowels it cooleth, and hindreth vapours, the spitting of blood and corruption for the most part (being cold) it helpeth. It will keep many years.

Conserves of red Roses the Italian manner

Take fresh red Roses not quite ripe, beat them in a stone Mortar, mix them with double their weight of Sugar, and put them in a glass close stopped, being not full, let them remain before you use them three months, stirring of them once a day.

The Vertue

The heat of Choller it doth mitigate extinguisheth thirst, asswageth the belly, and helpeth the Throat of hot hurts, sharp droppings and driness, and procureth rest: It will keep one year.

Conserves of Violets the Italian manner

Take the leaves of blue Violets separated from their stalks and greens, beat them very well in a stone Mortar, with twice their weight of Sugar, and reserve them for your use in a glass vessel.

To dry Apricocks

Take your Apricocks, pare and stone them, then weigh half a pound of sugar to a pound of Apricocks, then take half that sugar, and make a thin syrup, and when it boileth, put in the Apricocks; then scald them in that syrup; then take them off the fire, and let them stand all night in that syrup, in the morning take them out of that syrup, and make another syrup with the other half of the sugar, then put them in, and preserve them till they look clear; but be sure you do not do them so much as those you keep preserved without drying; then take them out of that syrup, and lay them on a piece of Plate till they be cold; then take a skillet of fair water, and when the water boils take your Apricocks one after another in a spoon, and dip them in the water first on one side, and then on the other; not letting them go out of the spoon: you must do it very quick, then put them on a piece of plate, and dry them in a Stove, turning them every day; you must be sure that your Stove or Cupboard where you dry them, the heat of it be renewed three times a day with a temperate drying heat untill they be something dry, then afterwards turn once as you see cause.

To dry Plums

Take a pound of Sugar to a pound of Plums, pare them, scald your Plums, then lay your Plums upon a sieve till the water be drained from them, boil your Sugar to a Candy height, and then put your Plums in whilst your syrup is hot, so warm them every morning for a week, then take them out, and put them into your stove and dry them.

To dry Apricocks tender

Take the ripest of the Apricoks, pare them, put them into a silver or earthen skillet, and to a pound of Apricocks put three quarters of a pound of Sugar, set your Apricocks over your fire; stirring them till they come to a pulp, and set the Sugar in another skillet by boiling it up to a good height, then take all the Apricocks, and stir them round till they be well mingled, then let it stand till it be something cold and thick, then put it into cards, being cut of the fashion of an Apricock, and laid upon glass plates; fill the Cards half full, then set them in your stove, but when you find they are so dry that they are ready to turn, then provide as much of your pulp as you had before, and so put to every one a stove, when they are turned, (which you must have laid before) & pour the rest of the Pulp upon them, so set them into your stove, turning them till they be dry.

To dry Pippins or Pears another way

Take Pippins or Pears, and lay them in an earthen Pan one by one, and when they be baked plump and not broken, then take them out, and lay them upon a Paper, then lay them on a Sieves bottom, and dry them as you did before.

To dry Pippins or Pears

Take your Pippins, Pears, Apricocks, pare them, and lay them in a broad earthen pan one by one, and so rowl them in searsed Sugar as you flower fried fish; put them in an Oven as hot as for manchet, and so take them out, and turn them as long as the Oven is hot; when the Oven is of a drying heat, lay them upon a Paper, and dry them on the bottom of a Sieve; so you may do the least Plum that is.

To preserve Damsins, red Plums or black

Take your Plums newly gathered, and take a little more sugar than they do weigh, then put to it as much water as will cover them; then boil your syrup a little while, and so let it cool, then put in your Damsins or Plums, then boil them leasurely in a pot of seething water till they be tender, then being almost cold pot them up.

To preserve Cherries the best way, bigger than they grow naturally, &c.

Take a pound of the smallest Cherries, and boil them tender in a pint of fair water, then strain the liquor from the substance, then take two pound of good Cherries, and put them into a preserving-pan with a lay of Cherries, and a lay of sugar: then pour the syrup of the other Cherries about them, and so let them boil as fast as you can with a quick fire, that the syrup may boil over them, and when your syrup is thick and of good colour, then take them up, and let them stand a cooling by partitions one from another, and being cold you may pot them up.

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